This poem provides a short set of verses on how to best train for battles. Topics include pel work, practicing with heavy weapons, archery, swimming, running, horseback riding, lance work and slings and stones.
Translation based on the Cambridge Version (1458-1460). Verses 6-11 by Benjamin “Casper” Bradak. Lines with an astrick at the beginning are incompletely translated from the transcription. If you have any corrections or comments, submit them and we will update the page.The transcription can be found here.
Vegetius it is, that I intend
After to go in lore of exercise,
Beseaching him that finds fault, amend
It to the best of his knowledge;
As ready will I be with my service
To amende this text, as further to procced.
*Now well to go, the good angel vs lede.
First is to learn chivalry’s pace,
That is: to serve in journey & battle;
Great peril there is, that they there-in do face,
*That seyn : our enemy wil our host assail
*And jumpe light; to goon is gret availe,
*And XX Ml. pace in howrys fyve
*Wel may they goon, and not goon ouer blyve.
And lightly may they go and come,
But faster and they pass, it is to run;
In running, exercise is good also
To smite first in the fight, and also when
To take a place our footmen will first run,
* And take it, also to search or sture
Lightly to come & go, running is sure.
Running is also right good at the chase,
And to leap dikes is also good
To run and leap and lay upon the face,
*That it suppose a mighty man go wood
And lose his heart without sheding blood ;
For how well a man may run and leap
May well decide and safe his party keep.
To swim is best to learn in summer season,
Men find not a bridge as often as a flood
* Swimming to avoid and chase a host will eason
Like after rain, the rivers go wide;
That every man in the host can swim, is good.
* Knight, squire, footman, cook and cosynere
* And gnome and page in swimming is to learn.
The discipline and exercise of the fight
was this: To have a pel or pile upright
Of a man’s height, thus the old and wise do write
With this a bachelor, or a young knight
Shall first be taught to stand, and learn to fight
And with a fan of double weight he takes as his shield
And a double-weight mace of wood to wield.
This fan and mace, either of which are of double weight
Of shield, swayed in conflict or battle,
Shall exercise swordsmen, as well as knights,
And no man, as they say, will be seen to prevail,
In the field, or in castle, though he assail,
Without the pel, being his first great exercise,
Thus write warriors old and wise.
Have each his pel or pile up-fixed fast
And, as it were, upon his mortal foe:
With mightiness the weapon must be cast
To fight strong, that none may escape
On him with shield, and sword advised so,
That you be close, and press your foe to strike
Lest your own death you bring about.
Impeach his head, his face, have at his gorge
Bear at the breast, or spurn him on the side,
With knightly might press on as Saint George
Leap to your foe; observe if he dare abide;
Will he not flee? Wound him; make wounds wide
Hew off his hand, his leg, his thighs, his arms,
It is the Turk! Though he is slain, there is no harm.
And to thrust is better than to strike;
The striker is deluded many ways,
The sword may not through steel and bones bite,
The entrails are covered in steel and bones,
But with a thrust, anon your foe is forlorn;
Two inches pierced harm more
Than cut of edge, though it wounds sore.
In the cut, the right arm is open,
As well as the side; in the thrust, covered
Is side and arm, and though you be supposed
Ready to fight, the thrust is at his heart
Or elsewhere, a thrust is ever smart;
Thus it is better to thrust than to carve;
Though in time and space, either is to be observed.
This fan and mace, either of which are of double weight
That when the Bachelor Knight has exercise’d
Of heavy gear, and after takes light
*Harness, as sheild and sword of just assise
His heart advances, hardness to arise
My bretheren is delivered, thinks he,
And on he goes, as glad as he may be.
And over this all, exercise in armies
*The doctour is to teach and discipline
For double wage a worthy man in the army
*Is likley to take, if he was proved digne
*Before his prince, ye, tymes •VIII• or •IX• ;
And what he had, and barely had the knight
That could not as he in the army fight.
Res publica right commendable is,
If knights and armies there abound,
For if they are present, nothing may go amiss
But if they are absent, al goes to ground;
*In gemme, in gold, in silk be thei fecounde,
*It fereth not ; but myghti men in armys,
*They fereth with the drede of deth & harmys.
Cato the Wise said: where as men error
In other things, it may well be amended
*But emendatioun is noon in were ;
*The crime done, forwith the grace is spent
*Or slayn anoon is he that there offended
Or put to flight, and ever after he
Is worth less than them which made him flee.
*But turne ageyn, Inwit, to thi preceptys !
With sword & sheild the learned Knight
At pel, the art of lance is no exception
A lance of more weight than is needed
Take him in hande, and teach him it to stear,
And to cast at that pel, as at his foe
So it goes that route, and right upon him go.
*Of armys is the doctour heer tattende,
*That myghtily this dart be take & shake,
*And shot as myghtily, forthright on ende,
*And smyte sore, or nygh, this pile or stake ;
Hereof vigor in the army will awake
*And craft to caste & smyte shal encrece ;
The warriors thus taught shall make peace
Of the army, the third or fourth part,
Are taught to shoot with bows long
With arrows; here is the doctrine and art
The strength to break the bow strong
*And swift and craftily the taclis fonge,
Starkly the left arm holds the bow
And draws with the right, and smite and overthrow
Set heart or eye upon that pel or pile
Shoot nigh or on it, and if you ride
On horse, with a bow big and hale;
Smite the face, breast, back or side
Compel them to flee or fall, as he is bid.
Constantly do this exercise,
On foot and horse, writes the old and wise.
That archery is great utility
It needs not to be told to any that here is
Cato, in the books wrote he,
Among the discipline of chivalry
And Claudius, that warred many years
Well said, and Africanus Scipio
With archery often confounded his foe.
* Use eek the casting of stones with sling or hand
It falleth ofte, if other shot ther noon is,
Men harnessed in steel may not withstand
The multitude and mighty cast of stone
It often breaks and bruses flesh and bone
And stones in some effect ar everywhere
And slings are not noxious to bear.
*And otherwhile in stony stede is fight,
A mountain otherwise is to defend
A hill, a town, a tour and every knight
*And other wight may cast stones on end.
*The stonys axe, if other shot be spende,
*Or elses thus : save other shot with stonys,
*Or use them, as required, both atonys.
*The barbulys that named ar plumbatys,
*Set in the sheld [is] good to take fyve,
*That used them of old, wer great estatys
As archers, the would shoot and drive
Her foes to flight, or leave them not alive
This shot suggested Diocletian
To his Emperor, Maxamilian.
The knights and warriors all,
Quickly to leap on horse and so descend
Upon the right or left side, as it falls
That exercise is best kept for the end;
Unarmed at first, then armed ascend
And after with a spear, or sword and shield
This feat is good, when troubled is the field.
And 60 pounde of weght he shall have to bear
And go each day a knight’s pace,
*Witaile & harness, and sword and spear
Freely to bear, all this is but solace
If this exercise is done often in time and space
Hard it may be, it time the pain will be eased,
The young men with this are best appeased.
And exercise him within his armor,
As is the guise thesedays to wear,
And see that every piece of the harness is sure
Go quickly in and quickly get out of gear
And keep it clean, as if gold or gems it were.
Encouraged is he with a harness bright,
And he that is well armed, dares to well fight.
To ward and watch a host is to learn
*Both holsom is that fully and necessary
*Withinne a pale an host is to govern,
That day and night safely there-in they tary
*And take rest, and never oon myscary;
*For fate of which, ha worthi not myscheved
*Now late, and al to rathe? Is this not proved?